Resources
Balancing Chemical Equations Using Matrix Algebra
Author(s): John Jungck^{1}, Jennifer Spangenberg^{1}
Beloit College
117 total view(s), 25 download(s)
- Matrix_stoichiometry_edited.xls(XLS | 198 KB)
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Overview
This Excel workbook introduces using matrix algebra to balance chemical reactions. The user can follow several instructional buttons and examples to learn how to set up the required matrices and how to interpret the results. The workbook allows the user to set up their own matrices for chemical reactions involving 2-7 elements. Several sample equations are available for the user to select. See the tutorial for a more detailed description of the matrix algebra.
Popular Text Citations
Grimaldi RP. 1980. Balancing Chemical Reactions with Methods and Computer Assistance. Module 339. UMAP (Modules in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications).
Research Articles
Bottomley J. 1878. Method of indeterminate coefficients (algebraic method). J Chem News. 37:110.
Krishamurthy E V. 1978. General matrix methods for chemical equations. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. 9:323-328.
Herndon W C. 1997. On Balancing Chemical Equations: Past and Present. Journal of Chemical Education. 74: 1359-1362.
Brown J P, Brown L P, Redd R M. 1972. Matrix algebra method. Journal of Chemical Education. 49: 754.
Copley, George Novello. 1968. Linear algebra of chemical formulas and equations. Chemistry 41: 22-27.
Alberty, R. A. 1996. Calculation of biochemical net reactions and pathways by using matrix operations. Biophysical Journal 71:507-515.
Tutorial & Background Materials
Chemical Equation Calculators. Witek Mozga (Note: Some browsers will fail to load required JavaScript)
Citation
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
- Jungck, J., Spangenberg, J. (2024). Balancing Chemical Equations Using Matrix Algebra. ESTEEM, QUBES Educational Resources. doi:10.25334/KBHZ-1567
Fundamental Mathematical Concepts
Developed By
Primary Reference
Cayley, A. R. 1853. Note on the Porism of the in-and-circumscribed Polygon. Philosophical Magazine
Cayley, A. R. 1858. A memoir on the theory of matricies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 148:17-37.