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ABO Blood Group Frequencies

Author(s): John R Jungck1, Jennifer A. Spangenberg2

1. Interdisciplinary Science Learning Center at the University of Delaware 2. Beloit College

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An Excel workbook in which students can calculate blood type frequencies through different approaches (Hardy-Weinberg, quadratic formula, and the EM algorithm). The workbook shows the formulas used and various visual representations.

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Version 1.0 - published on 11 Sep 2018 doi:10.25334/Q4HH7T - cite this


The purpose of this excel workbook is to compare several methods for calculating allele frequencies for ABO blood groups. The methods used are the standard textbook approach, the quadratic formula, and the EM algorithm. The user enters the observed numbers of each phenotype. The workbook then uses these to calculate estimates of allele frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each method. The user can view the formulas used to calculate frequencies through informational buttons. Four forms of graphical output are used to compare each method. Output includes histograms of chi-square values and observed vs. expected phenotype frequencies, as well as a ternary plot of the allele frequencies for each method. Users can also examine a dataset of blood group frequencies for different ethnic groups from

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