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#470, v1.0 Published:
#1221, v1.0 Published:

Title

Old VersionNew Version
1The nose knows: How tri-trophic interactions and natural history shape bird foraging behavior 1The nose knows: How tri-trophic interactions and natural history shape bird foraging behavior. Introduction to data visualization.

Authors

Old VersionNew Version
1Gregory Cunningham (St. John Fisher College) 1pamela scheffler ()
2Kaitlin Bonner (St. John Fisher College) 2pamela scheffler ()
3Kaitlin Bonner (St. John Fisher College)   

Description

Old VersionNew Version
1<p>The ocean is very large, and prey is not everywhere. &nbsp;Prey comes in productive patches that predators must find in order to exploit resources. &nbsp;The distribution of these resources are due to abiotic factors that concentrate energy in certain discrete areas. &nbsp;We are only beginning to fully understand how marine predators identify productive waters once encountered.</p>  1<p>In this module, students work in groups to analyze King Penguin reaction to dimethyl sulphide (DMS).</p>
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3<p>One possible oceanic cue that can be used to identify productive waters is the airborne gas, dimethyl sulfide (DMS). &nbsp;This odor&rsquo;s precursor, DMSP, is produced in the water as a byproduct of the metabolism of phytoplankton, one of the the primary producers encountered in the ocean. &nbsp;Once DMSP is released by phytoplankton it is volatilized and enters into the air above the phytoplankton patch. It is well established that high levels of DMS are found at shelf-breaks and seamounts, thus acting as indicator of these productive waters. &nbsp;Additionally, the production of DMS increases when zooplankton prey upon phytoplankton. Not surprisingly, zooplankton, and the fish that prey upon them, are both attracted to DMS. There is evidence that some birds and mammals also detect this odor in the air above productive waters.</p>  3<p>This module is designed for students with no math or science prerequisites in a general education environmental science class.&nbsp; The student groups work with a modified graph, that shows the DMS production by photoplankton over time, with the data presented as a single population.&nbsp; The students determine any patterns they see in the data and develop a hypothesis on what is happening.&nbsp; The groups present their findings to the class in a discussion-style format.&nbsp; After the presentation, student groups are given the same data, but labeled with a control population and a population that is being grazed by zooplankton.&nbsp; Students re-examine their hypotheses and class discussion centers around the importance of background information to scientific study and the importance of controlling for all known variables.&nbsp; furthermore, students discuss how scientists know the variables in field studies and the importance of basic science and natural history to developing a more complex understanding of biological processes.&nbsp;</p>
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5<p>The goal of this study is to determine if King penguins use DMS, a scent associated with their prey&rsquo;s prey (hence tri-trophic), as a way of finding productive waters where deep diving is likely to lead to encounters with fish. &nbsp;This study also looks at how sensitivity to DMS develops in King penguin chicks and compares the development of DMS sensitivities against a well-studied seabird, the Blue petrel.</p>    
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7<p>This activity allows students to gain experience with hypothesis creation, statistical analysis, and graphical and written representations of data, as well as develop quantitative skills. &nbsp;Ultimately, students will better appreciate how odors are used by avian predators to find food in a patchy environment.</p>    
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9<p>The authors<b>&nbsp;</b>would like to thank Dr. Francesco Bonadonna for allowing us to use the data for the Blue petrels and Travis Godkin for reviewing this manuscript. &nbsp;KMB would also like to thank the QUBES/ESA DIG Into Data Faculty Mentoring Network facilitators and participants for advice, support, and valuable feedback.</p>    
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11<p>&nbsp;</p>    
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13<p><b>Please cite as:</b></p>    
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15<p>Kaitlin M. Bonner and Gregory B. Cunningham. 2018. The nose knows: How tri-trophic interactions and natural history shape bird foraging behavior.&nbsp;<cite>Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology</cite>, Vol. 13: Practice #8 [online].&nbsp;<a href="http://tiee.esa.org/vol/v13/issues/data_sets/bonner/abstract.html">http://tiee.esa.org/vol/v13/issues/data_sets/bonner/abstract.html</a>.&nbsp;doi:10.25334/Q4Z69H</p>   

Attachments

1 file — ./Kaitlin Bonner/CoverImage1.jpg 1 file — publication_540_1333/Kaitlin Bonner/CoverImage1.jpg
2 link — Link to TIEE publication and teaching materials for The nose knows: How tri-trophic interactions and natural history shape bird foraging behavior (Abstract) | TIEE 2 link — Link to TIEE publication and teaching materials for The nose knows: How tri-trophic interactions and natural history shape bird foraging behavior (Abstract) | TIEE
3 file — QUBES pre-post graphs-tri-trophic.pdf