# References

## Lexical Ambiguity

Adams, T. L., Thangata, F., & King, C. (2005). ‘Weigh’ to go: Exploring mathematical language. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 10(9), 444 – 448.

Albert, J. H. (2003). College students’ conceptions of probability. The American Statistician, 57(1), 37–45. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1198/0003130031063

Barwell, R. (2005). Ambiguity in the mathematics classroom. Language and Education 19(2), 118–126.

Brown, B.A. (2006). ‘‘It Isn’t No Slang That Can Be Said about This Stuff’’: Language, identity, and scientific discourse. *Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43*(1), 96 – 126.

Brown, B. A. & Ryoo, K. (2008). Teaching science as a language: A “content-first” approach to science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(5), 529 – 553.

Brown, B.A. & Spang, E. (2008). Double talk: Synthesizing everyday and science language in the classroom. Science Education, 708 – 732.

Durkin, K., & Shire, B. (1991a). Lexical ambiguity in mathematical contexts. In K. Durkin & B. Shire (Eds.), Language in mathematical education: Research and practice (pp. 71—84).Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

Durkin, K., & Shire, B. (1991b). Primary school children’s interpretations of lexical ambiguity in mathematical descriptions. Journal in Research in Reading, 14(1), 46–55.

Garvin-Doxas, K., & Klymkowsky, M. W. (2008). Understanding randomness and its impact on student learning: Lessons learned from building the Biology Concept Inventory (BCI). CBE Life Sciences Education, 7(2), 227–233.http://www.lifescied.org/content/7/2/227.full

Kaplan, J.J., Fisher, D. & Rogness, N. (2010).Lexical Ambiguity in Statistics: How students use and define the words: association, average, confidence, random and spread. Journal of Statistics Education, 18(2),http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v18n2/kaplan.pdf

Kaplan, J.J., Fisher, D. & Rogness, N. (2009).Lexical Ambiguity in Statistics: What do students know about the words: association, average, confidence, random and spread? Journal of Statistics Education, 17 (3).http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n3/kaplan.html

Kaplan, J.J., Rogness, N. & Fisher, D. (2014). Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of Random. Statistics Education Research Journal, 22(1).

Konold, C. (1995). Issues in assessing conceptual understanding in probability and statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 3(1), 1 – 11.http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v3n1/konold.html

Lavy, I., & Mashiach-Eizenberg, M. (2009). The interplay between spoken language and informal definitions of statistical concepts. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(1), http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n1/lavy.html

Lemke, J. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Lesser, L.M., Wagler, A.E., Esquinca, A. & Valenzuela, M.G. (2013). Survey of native English speakers and Spanish-speaking English language learners in tertiary introductory statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 12(2), 6 – 31.http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ12(2)_Lesser.pdf

Lesser, L., & Winsor, M. (2009). English language learners in introductory statistics: Lessons learned from an exploratory case study of two pre-service teachers. Statistics Education Research Journal, 8(2), 5–32. http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ8(2)_Lesser_Winsor.pdf

Makar, K. & Confrey, J. (2005). “Variation-talk”: Articulating meaning in statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 4(1), 27–54. http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ4(1)_Makar.pdf

Neibert, Kai, Marsch, S. & Treagust, D.F. (2012). Understanding needs embodiment: A theory-guided reanalysis of the role of metaphors and analogies in understanding science. Science Education, 96(5), 849 – 877.

Rangecroft, M. (2002).The Language of Statistics. Teaching Statistics, 24(2), p 34 – 37.

Rector, M., Nehm, R.H., & Pearl, D. (2012). Learning the language of Evolution: Lexical ambiguity and word meaning in student explanations. Research in Science Education, DOI: 10.1007/s11165-012-9296-z.

Roth, W. M., (2005). Talking Science: Language and Learning in Science Classrooms. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Shultz, T. & Pilon, R. (1973). Development of the ability to detect linguistic ambiguity. Child Development, 44(4), 728 – 733.