Institutionalized Racism and White Privilege in STEM Education

The following articles were identified by iEMBER members as being of potential interest to individuals who are working to address institutionalized racism and white privilege in STEM education. These references are meant to be a start or a touch-stone on what is a personal journey; it is not a comprehensive list or path. All iEMBER members are encouraged to contribute to iEMBER's QUBEShub site. Please suggest additional articles to be included here by contacting our iEMBER QUBEShub coordinator, Dr. Rebecca Campbell-Montalvo at


A Place To Start For Those New To These Efforts

A Chance at Birth: An Academic Development Activity To Promote Deep Reflection on Social Inequities by Bryan Dewsbury in Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education -April 2020

From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in US schools by Gloria Ladson-Billings in Educational Researcher, 2006

“No One Wants to Believe It”: Manifestations of White Privilege in a STEM-Focused College by Kelly Grindstaff and Michael Mascarenhas in Multicultural Perspectives -July 3, 2019

STEM Equity and Inclusion (Un)Interrupted? by Stephanie A. Goodwin and Beth Mitchneck in Inside Higher Ed -May 13, 2020

Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression by Joe R. Feagin -New York: Routledge, 2006


The Elephant in the Room: Race and STEM Diversity by Maria N Miriti in BioScience -March 3, 2020

The White Racial Frame by Joe R. Feagin -New York: Routledge, 2010

They hated me till I was one of the “good ones”: Toward Understanding and Disrupting the Differential Racialization of Undergraduate African American STEM Majors by Vincent Basile and Ray Black in The Journal of Negro Education -Summer 2019

When Affirmative Action was white: An untold history of racial inequality in twentieth-century America by Ira Katznelson -NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, 2005

White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race by Ian Haney Lopez -New York: New York University Press, 1996


Resources For Those Ready To Take The Next Steps In Their Journey


  • Inclusive Science Special Issue in Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education -April 2020
  • Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences in CBE—Life Sciences Education -Fall 2016
  • You would not believe what I have to go through to prove my intellectual value! Stereotype management among academically successful Black mathematics and engineering students by Ebony O. McGee and Danny B. Martin in American Educational Research Journal -December 1, 2011
  • Sisters in Science: Conversations with Black Women Scientists on Race, Gender, and Their Passion for Science by Diann Jordan – December 1, 2006


Race & Theory

  • Blauner, B. (1972). Racial oppression in America. Harpercollins College Div.
  • Cox, O. C. (2000). Race: A study of social dynamics. NY: Monthly Review Press.
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. (2004). Darkwater: The Givens collection. NY: Washington Square Press. 
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. (2013). The souls of black folk. NY: Tribeca Books.
  • Feagin, J. 2010. Racist America. New York: Routledge.
  • Feagin, J.R. & Cobas, J.A. (2008). Latinos / as and white racial frame: The procrustean bed of assimilation. Sociological inquiry, 78, 39-53.
  • Gordon, Milton. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Hirschman, C. (1983). “America’s melting pot reconsidered.” Annual review of Sociology, 397-423.
  • Metzl, J. (2009). The protest psychosis: How schizophrenia became a black disease. Boston, MA: Beacon Press Books.
  • Madsen, D. L. (2008). American exceptionalism. MS: University Press of Mississippi
  • Omi, Michael & Winant, Howard. 1989. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
  • Park, R.E. (1950). Race and culture. The free press, Glencoe, Il. 
  • Park, R.E. (1924). Introduction to the science of society. Chicago: University of Chicago press.


Critical Race Theory

  • Bell, D. “Derrick Bell’s Racial Realism: A Commentary on white Optimism and Black Despair,” Connecticut Law Review 24 (1992): 527-532.
  • Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Crenshaw, Kimberle.W. 1988. “Race, Reform, Retrenchment: Transformation and Legitimation in Anti-Discrimination Law.” Harvard Law Review 101: 1331-1387.
  • Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller and Kendall Thomas. 1995. “Introduction.” Pp. xiii-xxxii in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement, edited by K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, & K. Thomas. New York: New Press
  • Curry, Tommy J, “Will the Real CRT Please Stand Up?” The Crit: A Critical Legal Studies Journal (2009): 1-47.
  • Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. NY: New York University Press.
  • Ferguson, R. (2004).  Aberrations In Black: Toward A Queer Of Color Critique. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis::London.
  • Griffith, D. M., Mason, M. Y., Eng, E., Jeffries, V., Plikcik, S.,& Parks, B. (2007). Dismantling institutional racism: Theory and action. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39,381-392
  • Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2009). Thinking through race and racism. Contemporary Sociology,38,121-125.
  • Scott, J. W. (2000). A political-class perspective and theory for the study of racial stratification in the 21st Century: A revised and expanded version of the 1997 ABS presidential address. Race and Society, 2, 101-11.
  • U.S. Commission on civil rights, Recent Activities Against Citizens and residents of Asian Descent, p. 8. 
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: 2012, March 2013.  



  • Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2014.. Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Gallagher, C. A. 2011. Rethinking the color line: readings in race and ethnicity. Mcgraw Hill: New York.
  • Harris, Cheryl I. 1993. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106: 1707-1791.
  • Katznelson, I. (2005). When Affirmative Action was white: An untold history of racial inequality in twentieth-century America. NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Lewis, Amanda E. 2004. “’What Group?’ Studying Whites and Whiteness in the Era of ‘Color-Blindness.’” Sociological Theory 22: 623-646.
  • Nunn, Kenneth “Law as Eurocentric Enterprise,” Law and Inequality Journal 15 (1997): 323-371.
  • Roediger, David. 2002. “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of ‘White Ethnics’ in the United States.” Pp. 325-343 in Race Critical Theories. edited by P. Essed & D. T. Goldberg. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Shapiro, Thomas M. 2004. The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth 
  • Perpetuates Inequality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  • Yancy, G. (2012). Look, a white: Philosophical essays on whiteness. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.